Why Separate Telangana?
I believe that there should be many more states in India than what we have now. A country like US which has 1/3 population of India has 50 states, why should we have 28 states only. Our population has more than tripled since we got independence, but we have not increased states even two-fold. Recently, India created three new states- Uttaranchal (from Uttar Pradesh), Chattisgarh (from Madhya Pradesh), and Jharkand (from Bihar). Why can’t we have Telangana (from Andhra Pradesh) now? Moreover, the proposal to carve Telangana was put along with the above three states. Only due to certain political compulsions Telangana was deleted from that list. There was another state in that proposal- Vidharba (from Maharashtra). India has the capacity and requirement to take on few more states, that would improve administration, reduce the influence of certain big states, allow interior and backward regions get attention and care from the center.
History: In 1947, India got Independence. In 1948, Indian Army ousted Nizam of Hyderabad to include Hyderabad and its regions into India. In 1953, Andhra was formed (from Madras State) as a state under Reorganization of States based on linguistic lines. In 1956, Telangana was merged with Andhra, although there was a majority demand to keep a separate state of (Hyderabad) Telangana. In 1956, there were protests in Hyderabad for Telangana which was quelled by police killing some of the protestors. The main reasons for not having separate Telangana then was the Congress led by Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, who was then Andhra Chief Minister was more influential and closer to Sardar Patel then Burgula Ramakrishna Rao , the then Hyderabad Chief Minister and was able to convince Sardar Patel on merger, insipte of Nehru’s opposition of the merger. The second most important reason being Hyderbad State being the Richest State in Indian Union having surplus budget of over 65 crores in 1956,ready infrastructure for the CAPITAL CITY and most important being money available for construction of mega irrigation projects in Telangana and water for Andhra areas.
The reasons for separate Telangana over years, especially after 1956 are plenty.
Some of them are outlined here:
Telangana is less developed compared to Andhra.
Rivers like Krishna and Godavari flow through Telangana, but the water from the dams are sent to Andhra. Before Andhra Pradesh formation i.e 1 Nov. 1956, Telangana had irrigation in 17.55 lakh acres, which increased to 18.40 lakhs acres fifty years later after merger. At the same time, in Andhra the irrigated land increased from 34.5 lakh acres to 100.0 lakh acres.At the time of AP formation Telangana had 11.0 lakh acres under tank irrigation, historically as this region was covered by network of tanks (rainwater harvesting structures) under the rules of various kings much before Kakathiyas to the recent time till NIzam. This got reduced to 6.5 lakh acres due to reduced budgetary allocations to the minor irrigation projects.
80% of the total catchment area of River Godavari in Andhra Pradesh is over 72.000 sq kms is in Telangana across seven districts, phenomenally minimum utilization of the river for irrigation development in Telangana.12 lakh acres in Andhra area compared to 5.0 lakh acres in Telangana. In YSR regime Polavaram proposes to divert 80 TMC of Godavari waters to krishna barrage to irrigate a additional 7.5 lakh acres of land in costal districts. Telangana loose 300 tribal habitations due to submerge along with 1.0 lakh acres of cropped land in Khammam dist.
Jurala Projects on krishna river was started in 1968 and was expected to finish in 1971.It took almost three and half decades to complete the project and the farmers received the water for irrigation only in 2005. This was mainly due to poor allocation of funds to complete this project which would irrigate over 1.0 Lakh aces in Mahabubnagar Dist.240 MW power generations was to be completed by year 2000, but only 120MW generation is till now, the other 120 MW is still under progress in advance state.
Srisailam Left bank canal —It is contemplated to provide Irrigation facilities in Drought prone areas of Nalgonda District in addition to drinking water to fluoride affected villages enroute. The Project is later renamed as Alimineti Madhava Reddy Project. Originally SLBC was supposed to have completed by 1980, but nothing has happened till now except naming it has Alimeti Madhava Reddy project/canal. Potential irrigation under this is 2.70 lakh acres . In comparison SRBC was completed by late nineties irrigating roughly over2.0 lakh acres in Rayalseema areas of Kurnool and Kadapa.
Nagarjunsagar Project: Nagarjuna Sagar project was taken up as a joint project between the then Andhra State and the then Hyderabad State in 1954. On the basis of the agreement, the project was to be jointly executed with left canal to serve 7.95 lakh acres in Nalgonda and Khammam districts with 161 TMC feet of water as its share. Around 2 lakh acres of lands in Andhra State limits were also to be served from the left canal.But in reality and as a result of the manipulation in the ayacut levels of left canal, the ayacut in Telangana utilizes only 80 TMC feet of water to Telangana ayacut under left canal, against its entitlement of 161 TMC feet of water
Because of less literacy and backwardness of Telangana people, most of the new jobs, postings in government and education are given to people from Andhra.
Except for common language, the people of Andhra and Telangana have different dialects, histories, cultural systems, different food habits
In 1969, there was a major revolt in Telangana region by students, professors, government employees, politicians and many others demanding a separate state. The movement was quashed- many were jailed. Some of the politicians got reassurances and politicians from central leaders to some of their demands and everything was hushed up. Over the last thirty years, none of those reassurances and promises was kept. Some of those assurances were turned down by the court as well. The region is still reeling under strong Andhra influence in all phases of social, educational, economic and cultural life. There is a renewed struggle for a separate state now. TRS is a political party which is exploiting this sentiment.